2007. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. Tyler Morning Telegraph, TylerPaper.com, Tyler, TX. Aquatic and wetland plants of Puerto Rico. and N.M. Tur. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Salvinia molesta are found here. Problems Caused Giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta Mitchell) is an aquatic fern native to southern Brazil.Giant salvinia is free floating and can form thick mats of up to 3 feet thick when plant densities are high. Farrell, and D.J. The maximum rate of nitrogen uptake, calculated from rates of growth, is near 8 mg nitrogen/g dry weight of salvinia/day or about 6,000 kg nitrogen/ha/year (Room, 1986). University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. It is usually referred to as common salvinia or water spangles. Louisiana State University Herbarium - Vascular Plants. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables. South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Columbia, SC. It can be found in the southern half of Alabama. Floating mats of S. molesta can be up to one meter thick (Whiteman and Room 1991), impeding navigation, reducing water flow and interfering with fishing and recreational activities (Mitchell and Thomas 1972). 1972. Water Spangles spreads by being transported on nets and boat propellers, and by people dumping it from aquariums and pools. Growth rates in response to pH levels were researched using Salvinia minima plants. 2015. Decomposing plant material drops to the bottom, consuming dissolved oxygen needed by fish and other aquatic life (Divakaran et al. 2008. Madsen J.D. Texas Invasive Plant and Pest Council. The upper surface of the floating leaves are covered in hairs that repel water. This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. Jacono, M.M. Lone Star Outdoor News. Mitchell, D.S. Water Spangles (Salvinia minima) is a Central and South American floating plant that is known for its relatively large size and its dangling roots, which are a great feeding area and refuge for aquatic animal fry. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin, TX. The Kariba weed: Salvinia molesta. Effects of adult and larval Cyrtobagous salviniae on the floating weed Salvinia molesta. For queries involving invertebrates, contact Amy Benson. This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. Figure 5. Counties represented by specimen data listed below: Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: Owens. Web Development: The Florida Center for Community Design + Research, A member of the University of South Florida family of PlantAtlas.org sites. 2010. University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL. Bister, T.J., and M.W. Best to grow them in partial shade and not direct sunlight. Thomas. 2007. Aqueous extracts of cattail plants (roots, stems, and leaves) as well as two of its phenolic compounds (2-chlorophenol and salicylaldehyde) were found to inhibit the growth of Salvinia when incorporated in the growth medium. http://www.calflora.org/. 2008b. Plants grow vegetatively, forming thick mats that interfere with natural ecological processes and aquatic industries including boating, waterfowl hunting, rice farming, and aquaculture. During early colonization small leafed, thin plants lie flat on the water surface. The optimum temperature for growth is 30°C. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data. and R.K. Grewal. Room, P.M. 1983. Texas A&M University Bioinformatics Working Group. Castanea 214-226. British Fern Gazette, 10, 251-252. As populations expand, leaves curl at the edges in response to self-competition. Upon isolation, they were placed into three groups: the control, the acid, and the base. The rate of growth of Salvinia molesta (S. Auriculata Auct.) Counties represented by specimen data listed below, Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below, Range of years during which specimens were collected, View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database, The Florida Center for Community Design + Research, Florida Center for Community Design and Research, Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License, Water Spangles; Floating Fern; Common Salvinia, Water Spangles is an introduced perennial herbaceous aquatic in the Floating Fern family (Salviniaceae). Water Spangles occurs in lakes and ponds, in sloughs, in beaver ponds, and in other quiet bodies of water. 2004. Invasive Salvinia minima, a rapidly growing non-native aquatic plant, has been discovered in Alabama's Guntersville Lake on the Tennessee River. Figure 5. Upper surfaces of green fronds are covered with rows of white, bristly hairs (papillae) (Mitchell 1972), which divide into four thin branches that soon rejoin at the tips to form a cage. Calflora. in laboratory and natural conditions. Reproduction is strictly vegetative as spores are sterile (Mitchell 1979). 1982). The Alabama Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. The Journal of Ecology 71(2):349-365. http://www.wlf.louisiana.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/document/37764-aquatic-vegetation-control-plans/turkey_creek_avcp_2013_0.pdf. Lake Pinkston 2007 Survey Report. http://www.calflora.org/. Thomas, P.A. University of South Carolina. Salvinia molesta Mitchell does it threaten Florida? The water-fern Salvinia molesta in the Sepik River, Papua New Guinea. Hydrilla eradication program annual report 2004 - Appendix II. Fuller, P.L., M.G. 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